Thursday, September 11, 2014


Mom bought RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) for us. It's about USD14.91 before discount. We eat about 10-ish different supplements a day on top of our 10-ish different organic veg smoothie per day. Some of the older supps which we have been eating for years like nutritional yeast is off the menu already.

Most (if not all) ppl think Mom as mad soon as they hear we eat tonnes of supps and veg. But the truth is, supplements are meant to support and assist a living body and never a cure for dis-ease. That's why its called supplements! Mom often reads about ppl saying things like, ''don't feed supps unnecessarily unless the dog really needs it.'' C'mon, once your dog really needs it, its kinda too late don't you think?  Why WAIT for dis-ease to set in then decide to feed supps? Why not feed supps all along to PREVENT dis-ease?

Think about it.

Anyways, for RNA, we all get half a capsule each daily (well, actually 6 days a week since we fast every Monday). It's really good for animals for its anti-aging properties. It's basically for healthy cells, think DNA and you'll get the idea. The younger an animal starts taking it, the better for them. It was actually Mom's rei-ki Teacher who recommended this RNA supp to Mom for us as she's very knowledgeable on diet for animals... she highly recommends organic raw food for animals as well.

So back to RNA... there's a few sites with some pretty good info. We will paste the entire stuff here just so in case the links get broken next time. It's so just for Mom's reference.

Mom ordered it on 01 Sept and we were on it about a week later. Oh btw, Chewy absolutely LOVES it. Being a cat, she can be pretty picky about supps. There're some that she doesn't fancy as much but RNA and probiotics are her favorite aside from the stinky krill oil.

What is RNA?

Ribonucleic acid, or RNA is one of the three major biological macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life (along with DNA and proteins). A central tenant of molecular biology states that the flow of genetic information in a cell is from DNA through RNA to proteins: “DNA makes RNA makes protein”. Proteins are the workhorses of the cell; they play leading roles in the cell as enzymes, as structural components, and in cell signaling, to name just a few. DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid) is considered the “blueprint” of the cell; it carries all of the genetic information required for the cell to grow, to take in nutrients, and to propagate. RNA–in this role–is the “DNA photocopy” of the cell. When the cell needs to produce a certain protein, it activates the protein’s gene–the portion of DNA that codes for that protein–and produces multiple copies of that piece of DNA in the form of messenger RNA, or mRNA. The multiple copies of mRNA are then used to translate the genetic code into protein through the action of the cell’s protein manufacturing machinery, the ribosomes. Thus, RNA expands the quantity of a given protein that can be made at one time from one given gene, and it provides an important control point for regulating when and how much protein gets made.
For many years RNA was believed to have only three major roles in the cell–as a DNA photocopy (mRNA), as a coupler between the genetic code and the protein building blocks (tRNA), and as a structural component of ribosomes (rRNA). In recent years, however, we have begun to realize that the roles adopted by RNA are much broader and much more interesting. We now know that RNA can also act as enzymes (called ribozymes) to speed chemical reactions. In a number of clinically important viruses RNA, rather than DNA, carries the viral genetic information. RNA also plays an important role in regulating cellular processes–from cell division, differentiation and growth to cell aging and death. Defects in certain RNAs or the regulation of RNAs have been implicated in a number of important human diseases, including heart disease, some cancers, stroke and many others.

Is there life in the old dog yet?
An experiment with RNA and old dogs
By Wendy Volhard

Manfred my 25lb Standard wire-haired Dachshund was enjoying his 14th year when in the middle of the summer he had an ischemic event much like a stroke. Curled up to the right, with a slack jaw and right eye drooping, he obviously had suffered some neurological damage. Having had and been treated for liver disease his whole life, I did not feel I had too much of a chance of bringing him back to a life that had some quality. Never being afraid to
try, I put Manfred onto a special diet, gave him regular acupuncture treatments and chiropractic care. Over the next weeks, he slowly improved.

He could walk - albeit in a large circle - his eye returned to normal and the only residual damage seemed to be an inability to completely open his mouth. It never stopped him eating, however, and enjoying his food.

His main diet change was to use bison as a primary protein source, plus herbs that supported his liver, heart and circulation. It made a huge difference to his overall well-being and he managed to start walking in a straight line. Complete blood work was done at the end of January 2004. While triglyceride and lipase levels were lowered and the kidneys improved
over his previous tests, the rest of his blood looked alarming. He had elevated liver levels, alkaline phosphatase that was sky high, and cholesterol and total protein levels were at high normal. Something had to be done and soon.

Introduction to RNA
At the beginning of May a friend sent me newsletters from VRP, which contained articles about Ribonucleic Acid. These reports mentioned experiments with several old dogs in their teens, which were not in good shape. Just by adding RNA to their diets, the dogs had become puppy-like and lived many more years. With nothing to lose, I immediately ordered some.
For the first 14 weeks, I added 1/8th teaspoon to each morning meal. Manfred became livelier and insisted on returning to his long morning walks. Always bothered with impacted anal glands, on his regular monthly visit to his veterinarian three weeks later, the glands were no longer impacted. I was sent home with the admonition to continue whatever I was doing! The
following month's check-up revealed the same – no impaction. The vet noticed that the quality of Manfred's coat and skin was improving. The fuzzy soft coat that had replaced his wiry covering in his last years was turning a deep dark brown. His skin, which was wrinkly with flaky spots, was changing for the better. He seemed to be stronger.

With this success I introduced the same regimen to Manfred's half sister, Diggy, who was just turning 13½. I had had blood done on her a month before and was horrified to see that she seemed to be showing signs just like Manfred of elevated liver enzymes, alk phos levels very high, kidney reading just over high normal, lipase and cholesterol high. I was obviously battling some genetic disease. At a young age, both dogs were diagnosed with
hypothyroidism and were on thyroid medication. Diggy had the added complication of large fatty cysts under her left front leg, over her spleen and in between her shoulder blades. They were beginning to interfere with her forward mobility. At the end of July, we did a complete blood work-up on both dogs, consisting of a CBC and Chemistry Screen, plus a thyroid panel to see if there were any noticeable changes. When the blood tests were drawn, after a
12 hour fast, both dogs had been on 1/8th teaspoon of RNA daily in their morning meal for 14 weeks. Both dogs’ thyroid readings were too high after the 14 weeks on RNA and the
vet suggested I cut their medication by half.

It is interesting to note that the changes were different for each dog. Some levels went up for the female, but all levels listed went down for the male. I suspect their bodies were evening out and balancing in their own way. We are still working on reducing the Alk Phos levels. The large fatty cysts on Diggy began to diminish and today are hardly noticeable. After re-reading all the literature on RNA and noticing that the safety parameters were high, I decided to increase the RNA to 1/8th teaspoon twice a day. Both dogs are very lively, enjoy their food, their walks and are playing with the Labrador and Dachshund puppies in the family. Their
cognitive ability has increased and they are enjoying their newfound quality of life.

What is RNA?
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a substance obtained from Torula yeast. Grown on molasses and free of whole yeast cells, it is non-allergenic. Used extensively in the study of aging and chronic degenerative disease its pioneer, Dr Benjamin Frank, MD, researched and ran clinical experiments during the 1950s-70s. Many of his experiments were conducted on mice and
some o dogs. By supplementing their diets with RNA, he increased the life span of his experimental animals in a dramatic manner. Dr Frank believed that most diseases originate from some kind of cellular disorder or damage. He believed that diseased cells (and aging) could often be ‘cured’ by supplying the cells with an abundance of their basic building materials in pure form. The idea of the Nucleic Acid treatment is to supply cells with perfect,
undamaged nucleic acids that are the basic building blocks of DNA and RNA. Nucleic acids activate the processes of DNA repair in degenerative conditions by inducing enzyme synthesis and activation, and increasing energy producing processes in the cells. One of the key roles of RNA is protein synthesis.

Other successes with RNA:
Buoyed by the results with my own dogs, I wove this information into my conferences and seminars, and introduced RNA to many of my dog associates. They have reported the following:

An 11-year-old Labrador Retriever stud dog showed a dramatic increase in sperm count.

A seven year-old German Shepherd female that had shown signs of anxiety around other dogs and could be aggressive on occasion, showed a great calmness and an ability to socialize with other dogs.

A 10 1/2 year-old Labrador female who had had her cancerous spleen removed and given 2-3 weeks to live, 5 months later is still alive, all blood work is normal and she is racing around like a puppy.

A 19 year-old cat who was aging rapidly, had lost interest in food and was sleeping most of his life away, after several weeks on RNA is now charging around, playing, going outside and stalking in the grass. Coat has resumed its shine, and he shows increased mental capacity.

All the older dogs and cats that have had RNA added to their daily ration show signs of more energy and general overall vitality and cognitive ability.

So what is the answer to the title of this article? Is it possible to put
life into an old dog? In the case of my two Dachshunds, it is an
unqualified yes.

Ribonucleic Acid Part One

A Highly Effective Anti-Aging Supplement

By Ward Dean, MD
Durk Pearson and Sandy Shaw's 1982 bestselling book, Life Extension— A Practical, Scientific Approach (more than 2.5 million copies sold), is generally recognized as the spark that ignited the currently popular field of anti-aging/life extension medicine. Pearson and Shaw's blockbuster extolled the free radical theory of aging and introduced the terms free radicals and antioxidants to millions of non-scientist health enthusiasts. However, Pearson and Shaw's success was partially due to another popular book that helped to pave the way, which preceded their publication by six years.

In 1976, a pioneering New York medical doctor named Benjamin Frank created a minor sensation with his book—Dr. Frank's No-Aging Diet. Dr. Frank was unique. He was not only an MD, but also had a PhD in biochemistry. He was simultaneously a practicing physician and researcher, performing anti-aging experiments with mice and rats in addition to taking care of his patients.

Dr. Frank was ahead of his time. He was an early advocate of high-dose vitamin therapy (especially Bs, C, & E), plus other nutrients not well known or available in the early '60s through the mid-'70s when he did most of his research. For example, he recommended the use of carnosine, CoQ10, lipoic acid, DMG (then known as “Vitamin B15”), glycerol phosphate (magnesium glycerophosphate — he believed several grams per day promoted cell membrane integrity, and also restored receptors), vanadium, orotic acid, lecithin, choline, and inositol. A further indication of his foresight was his recommendation of the use of biguanide drugs like metformin, which is now becoming recognized as one of the most effective anti-aging drugs currently available (see my article, Metformin—An Effective and Underappreciated Life Extension Drug, in the November 1998 issue of Vitamin Research News).

Dr. Frank's Theory of Aging
Dr. Frank theorized that aging and degenerative diseases are caused by the loss of cellular energy production (ATP) due to membrane damage and decreased efficiency of the Kreb's cycle and the associated electron transport chain. He also believed that damage to cellular DNA from free radicals and crosslinkages could not be repaired due to inadequate cellular energy and availability of “raw materials” (i.e., nucleotides and nucleic acids [Fig.1.]) to repair the DNA. He believed that this decay of DNA further led to improper formation of messenger RNA and ribosomal RNA, which in turn led to abnormalities and structural defects in the cell. Frank's theory is clearly related to the mitochondrial, free radical, crosslinkage, and membrane theories of aging, all previously discussed in Vitamin Research News.

The key difference between Dr. Frank's theory and the approach used by advocates of the other related theories is the specific anti-aging therapy that he recommended—high-dose nucleic acids, combined with high potency multivitamins. Dr. Frank did not discount the approaches recommended by other researchers—he believed, however, that their methods (i.e., antioxidants, cross-linkage inhibitors) would not be effective unless combined with adequate amounts of RNA.

Dr. Frank believed that one cause of inadequate concentrations of RNA and nucleotides for repair and production of energy is an age-related increase in enzymes that destroy nucleic acids (i.e., nucleases—specifically, ribonuclease, which breaks down RNA). As people grow older, ribonuclease enzyme activity has been reported to increase. Consequently, just as the requirement to repair damaged cells increases, the substances required for this repair (nucleic acids) are being degraded by higher concentrations of destructive enzymes. Consequently, Dr. Frank believed older people have an even higher requirement for nucleic acids than younger people. Thus, the older we get, the greater our need for nucleic acids, both for replacement and for repair.

Nucleic Acids as Potential Life Extending, Disease-Preventing NutrientsDr. Frank believed that exogenous RNA, especially when combined with associated B vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and sugars (like D-ribose) would enter the cell and aid in normal regeneration of the damaged cellular elements. This would, in turn, bring about normal enzyme synthesis and activation, and most importantly would increase cellular energy production. For this reason, Frank believed that providing RNA and associated compounds would aid in the repair of damaged DNA. He knew that ribonucleic acid is important in the initiation of DNA synthesis, acting in a coenzyme-like fashion. Dr. Frank stated, “The importance of nucleic acids in protein synthesis and in enzyme synthesis, as well as the importance of RNA in bringing about DNA synthesis, and the actually observed anti-aging effects of nucleic acids on whole man, support the claims regarding the value of increased intake of nucleic acids in the prevention and treatment of cellular degeneration.”

Dr. Frank claimed that not only do nucleic acids (1) decrease overall oxygen utilization, but also (2) increase its inherent effectiveness, lessening potential oxidative damage to the cell. He believed that the “anti-anoxia effect” of nucleic acids (ability to do better work on less oxygen) was due to the increased synthesis of CoQ10 and enhancement of the efficiency of Kreb's cycle and respiratory chain. He believed nucleic acids might even lead to increased synthesis of mitochondria.

Effects of Nucleic Acids

  • Marked increase in “energy” or activity
  • Anti-anoxia action (i.e., reduced shortness of breath)
  • Increased ability to tolerate low temperatures
  • Decreased skin wrinkling and increased skin elasticity
  • Improved cognitive performance
  • Immune enhancement
  • Dr. Frank described the dramatic results of his use of oral and injectable ribonucleic acid in the prevention and treatment of a wide variety of age-related illnesses. He used a nucleic acid-rich diet and nucleic acid extracts for a variety of ills including emphysema, heart disease, diabetic complications, arthritis, fading eyesight, memory loss, and other diseases of aging. He believed that nucleic acids should be considered as essential nutrients, along with fats, carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins and minerals.
    Dr. Frank reported that a common finding of those on a high nucleic acid diet was a normalization of blood lipid levels. This was reflected by a drop in total cholesterol and triglycerides, and an elevation of HDL. He believed that the cholesterol-lowering effect of nucleic acid-rich diets was due to increased ATP formation, enhanced electron transport chain activity, improved CoQ10 and cytochrome oxidase synthesis, and increased NADH oxidation.

    He also reported that some of the earliest noticeable effects of RNA therapy were increased energy, followed by improved skin tone, with increased elasticity and reduction in fine wrinkles. He frequently referred to the skin-tightening effect, causing folds to diminish and the skin to acquire a tighter and more youthful appearance.
    Clinical Uses

  • Arthritis
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Hyperlipidemia
  • Cancer
  • Diabetes and complications
  • Emphysema
  • Colds
  • Glaucoma
  • Poor vision
  • Retinitis pigmentosa

  • Reduced skin wrinkles
  • Acne
  • Hair growth
  • Psoriasis
  • Diverticulitis
  • Memory loss
  • Parkinson's Disease
  • ALS
  • Bell's Palsy
  • Lupus erythematosus
  • Frank's dietary recommendations included:
    • Four days per week—eat one can of small sardines.
    • Eat fish on the other three days.
    • Calve's liver once/week
    • Lentils, peas, lima beans, or soybeans.
    • Asparagus, radishes, onions, scallions, mushrooms, spinach, cauliflower, or celery.
    • Seven glasses of fluid per day—4 of water, 2 milk, and 1 vegetable.
    While most modern nutritionists attribute the benefits of a high fish diet to the concentration of omega 3 fatty acids, Dr. Frank was of the opinion that it was primarily due to the high content of nucleic acids in most fish, and especially in sardines. (He did not discount the possible benefit of the omega 3 fatty acids, but believed that they were merely a synergistic adjunct to the nucleic acids.) He reported that sardines contain 1.5 percent nucleic acid, liver approximately 0.5 percent, and muscle meat 0.05 percent. Consequently, Dr. Frank had many anti-aging activists in the mid-'70s eating sardines like crazy. (Frankly, I got sick of eating sardine sandwiches!)

    Dr. Frank recommended consuming a minimum of 1.5 gm daily of nucleic acid for general health and well being. However, he recommended much higher doses for those with specific health concerns. He cautioned, however, that when taking higher therapeutic doses of RNA, that urine pH be only slightly in the acid range. He found that highly acidic urine with a high RNA diet (more than 2 gm daily) may result in elevated levels of uric acid in the blood, which can cause kidney stones. This can be easily prevented by drinking plenty of water. Urine acid-base balance (pH) can be easily tested by using urine pH test strips.

    Clinically, Dr. Frank used dosages of RNA between 500 mg-20 gm. He usually recommended the higher doses (over 5 grams) be used several times per week. If dosages higher than 2 gm daily were taken, Dr. Frank recommended doing so under the care of a physician, where BUN, creatinine and uric acid levels could be monitored, and recommended that the urine pH be maintained near 6 (i.e., between 5.0-7.0). Dr. Frank stated that those with uric acid of 2-3 mg can take considerably larger amounts of nucleic acid than those with levels closer to 5, 6, or 7 mg. Higher amounts of uric acid can be better tolerated in near alkaline urine than in very acid urine. It should be noted that he never observed any problems in people with normal kidney function, who drank adequate fluids and maintained urine pH in the desired range. He recommended that additional protection could be gained by consuming adequate amounts (500-1,000 mg) of magnesium each day.

    Historical Basis of RNA as an Anti-Aging Supplement
    Dr. Frank was not the first to experiment with nucleic acids. In 1908, Dr. C.S. Minot first proposed that nucleic acids were vital for the health of cells and were essential for the longevity of the organism. However, the first evidence that nucleic acids might actually promote longevity was demonstrated by a series of experiments conducted by Dr. T. Brailsford Robertson in Australia in 1928. Dr. Robertson believed that the lifespan of organisms was determined by the ratio of nuclear (chromosomal) materials to the cytoplasm (protein) of the cells. He referred to this ratio as the “nucleocytoplasmic ratio”—and proposed that the way to optimize this ratio was to supply the nuclei of the organism with nutrients in “excessive abundance.”
    He tested his hypothesis in a series of experiments. He used 30-40 male and 30-40 female mice in each test group, with a similar group of controls in each experiment. The test groups received 25 mg of yeast nucleic acid each day throughout their lives. Robertson's hypothesis was apparently confirmed, as the results were strikingly and uniformly positive. He reported an average lifespan extension of 12.5 percent for males, and 17 percent for females (Fig. 3).

    Despite these positive, provocative results, almost twenty years elapsed before any further research was done in this area. In the mid-1940s, Dr. Thomas Gardner, an organic chemist in the scientific department of Hoffman-La Roche, picked up where Robertson had left off. Gardner agreed with Robertson's hypothesis that the nucleocytoplasmic ratio decreased with aging, but was not convinced that correcting this ratio was the mechanism of RNA's life-prolonging effects. He proposed several other possible mechanisms for these benefits. He suggested that nucleic acids might slow down the metabolism of the nucleus of the cell. He reasoned that if nucleic acids were provided to the cell in high amounts, they could be utilized in metabolism without destroying the nucleus or cytoplasm, and thereby enable the cells to live longer at a higher energy level. Alternatively, he theorized that the life-prolonging effect of yeast nucleic acid might be due to its ability to stimulate the immune system, since sodium yeast nucleinate was known to stimulate the growth and proliferation of white blood cells (leukocytes). He equated this to the proposed anti-aging effects of Anti-Reticulo Cytotoxic Serum (ARCS) then being used in Russia (Bogomolets). ARCS was briefly reviewed in the August, 2003 issue of Vitamin Research News.

    Whatever the mechanism, Gardner attempted to replicate Robertson's work, with several modifications. First, he began his studies with mice that were 600 days old (instead of beginning treatment after weaning, as Robertson had done), because “mice are beginning to get old at that age.” Also, he believed that Robertson's dosages were unrealistically high. He calculated that 25 mg per mouse per day would translate into a human dose of 55 gm per day. Gardner was apparently considering human use of RNA, and realized that few humans could consume such high doses. Consequently, Gardner administered 1/10th of the dosage used by Robertson, resulting in a daily RNA dosage of 2.5 mg per mouse per day. This corresponded to an equivalent human dosage of 5.5 grams per day, which Gardner believed could be practically consumed.
    Gardner used 72 female and 31 male albino mice, divided into test and control groups. Gardner reported that the treated mice retained vitality and vigor longer than the controls, fewer went blind, and the treated mice appeared healthier and exhibited greater activity than the controls. Although the lifespan extension of the mice receiving nucleic acids was not as great as reported by Robertson, there was an overall trend toward increased longevity in the nucleic acid-treated mice. Gardner attributed his less spectacular results to the fact that he started the experiment when the mice were already advanced in age, and that the dosage was so much less than that administered by Robertson.

    Interestingly, Gardner reported that Robertson and his staff had taken 15 gm yeast nucleic acid per day, and that Gardner himself (perhaps as a result of observing his healthy mice) had been taking 5 gm of yeast nucleic acid for weeks “without any ill effects.” He concluded that “As Robertson tested with three times the amounts I have suggested for [human] use, there is no reason known at the present time for fearing to use yeast nucleic acid freely for veterinary experimental purposes…and…for extending their life spans as well as for experimental therapy on aging men and women for the same purpose.”

    Nearly another twenty years were to elapse before further experiments with RNA were conducted—this time with even more spectacular results. Dr. Max Odens conducted a study with ten 750-day-old rats, of a species that had a normal lifespan of 800-900 days. Five rats were untreated controls. The other five received weekly injections of “DNA solution in water…plus ordinary RNA.” Unfortunately, details of the exact composition and dosage that was administered were not given. After twelve weeks of injections, Odens reported that the treated rats looked younger, were very lively, and had gained weight, in contrast to the untreated rats which “looked old, moved slowly, did not eat much, and had lost weight. The difference was remarkable.” Odens further reported that all of the untreated rats died before 900 days, while 4 of the treated rats survived between 1600 and 1900 days, and one rat lived 2250 days! Odens concluded that “with weekly injections of DNA and RNA, the life span of 4 rats was doubled on the average, and the life span of the fifth rat was more than trebled.” These results are frankly, hard to believe. But some credence must be given this report, considering the journal in which it was published—the prestigious Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

    The claims for the life-extending benefit of nucleic acid administration are supported by a diverse series of experiments that span nearly 50 years. Based on these findings and the reports by Dr. Frank of its widespread clinical benefits with human use, I consequently agree with Dr. Frank's recommendation to add at least 1.5 grams per day of nucleic acids to an anti-aging nutritional supplement regimen. This recommendation is buttressed by the facts that two of the research teams admitted taking high dose nucleic acids themselves, after seeing the effects they had on their experimental animals, and that the third researcher also recommended consideration of nucleic acid supplementation for human and veterinary use. It is surprising that more researchers have not attempted to replicate these studies—especially when considering the high degree of safety and minimal cost of high quality yeast-derived nucleic acids that are available today. :
    1. Minot, C.S., The Problem of Age, Growth and Death, G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1908, New York.
    2. Frank, G. Nucleic Acid Therapy in Aging and Degenerative Disease—A Metabolic Approach with DNA, RNA and Related Metabolites, Psychological Library, New York, 1968.
    3. Frank, B. Dr. Frank's No-Aging Diet. The Dial Press, New York, 1976.
    4. Frank, B. Nucleic Acid & Antioxidant Therapy of Aging & Degeneration. Royal Health Books, Ltd, Long Island, NY 1977.
    5. Robertson, T. Brailsford. On the influence of nucleic acids of various origin upon the growth and longevity of the white mouse. Australian J Exp Biol Med Sci, 1928, 5: 47-67.
    6. Gardner, T. The effect of yeast nucleic acid on the survival time of 600 day old albino mice. J Gerontol, 1946, 1: 445-456.
    7. Odens, M. Prolongation of the life span in rats. J American Geriatrics Soc, 1973, XXI: 450-451.
    8. Bogomolets, A.A. Anti-reticular cytotoxic serum as a means of pathogenic therapy, Am Rev Soviet Med, 1943, 1: 101-112.

    Ribonucleic Acid Part Two

    Review of Potential Anti-Aging Effects

    By Ward Dean, MD
    In 2003 the scientific community celebrated two important milestones. First, April 2003 was the 50th anniversary of the discovery of the structure of DNA, revealed by James Watson and Francis Crick to be a double helix. Second, 2003 marked the year the human genome was successfully sequenced by the Human Genome Project (HGP).

    The half-century between these two events was a period enriched by the collective insights and hard work of a number of brilliant research scientists devoted to unlocking the mysteries of DNA. One of the leading members of this august body was Dr. Benjamin Frank. Dr. Frank deserves a great deal of credit for his pioneering insight and work in originating nucleic acid therapy to treat aging and degenerative diseases with oral doses of RNA. Dr. Frank intensively experimented with nucleic acids from 1961 until his untimely death in 1979. His early work involved the study of the physiologic effects of RNA and RNA + DNA. He found that these substances had profound (1) anti-aging (including reduced skin wrinkling and increased skin elasticity); (2) energizing; (3) “anti-anoxia” (oxygen sparing); (4) anti-low temperature and freezing [as evidenced by increased survival of experimental animals subject to low temperatures]; (5) anti-viral; and (6) cognitive enhancing effects.

    These effects were first reported in his book A New Approach to Degenerative Disease and Aging—Effect of RNA, DNA with Other Metabolites (1964), and were subsequently elaborated upon in his later books, Nucleic Acid Therapy in Aging and Degenerative Disease (A Metabolic Approach with DNA, RNA and Related Metabolites) (1969), Dr. Frank's No Aging Diet (1976), and Nucleic Acid and Anti Oxidant Therapy of Aging and Degeneration (1977). Although Dr. Frank's observations remain largely uninvestigated by other scientists, they are summarized here as a potential adjunctive approach to alleviating a variety of conditions, ranging from cosmetic and bothersome symptoms to life-threatening illnesses.
    Dr. Frank's nucleic acid treatments contained from 300 mg to several grams of RNA and DNA, taken daily along with a high-potency multi-vitamin, multi-mineral formulation. Remarkable improvements were often obtained, ranging from increased mental alertness and physical performance, to decreased wrinkles.

    Integrated Theory of Aging
    Dr. Frank's publications were not just a compilation of his observations, but outlined an integrated theory of aging. His theory was that nucleic acids, when injected or ingested, led to a marked increase in enzyme synthesis and activation. These actions are enhanced when optimum amounts of associated coenzymes (vitamins) and cofactors (minerals) and substrates are present or administered along with the nucleic acids. Dr. Frank envisioned the whole system of metabolites as being active in RNA therapy, but believed the nucleic acids were the most critical part of this regimen.
    Most diseases originate from some kind of cellular disorder or damage. Dr. Frank believed that diseased cells (and aging) could often be “cured” by supplying the cells with an abundance of their basic building materials in pure form. The idea of the “Nucleic Acid Treatment” is to supply cells with perfect, undamaged nucleic acids, which are the basic building blocks of DNA and RNA. Nucleic acids activate the processes of DNA repair in degenerative conditions by inducing enzyme synthesis and activation, and increasing the energy-producing processes in the cell.

    Dr. Frank believed that it should be possible, by activation and synthesis of proper enzymes, to repair cellular and sub-cellular damage with some degree of precision. This is a point which no one working with nucleic acids has properly developed. It also helps to explain why DNA damaged in degenerative diseases and aging is repaired by the type of nucleic acid therapy which he recommended.
    Frank proposed that rejuvenation could occur if large quantities of pure RNA and DNA were consumed and then incorporated into our own RNA and DNA. (This probably happens when cells divide and new DNA and RNA is formed). The replacement of “old” nucleic acids with “young” nucleic acids represents an overall improvement in, or repair of, our DNA and RNA. Since DNA and RNA are the key molecules for the efficient performance of the cells (and the entire body), an overall improvement of all cell processes should result, as Dr. Frank observed in patients treated with nucleic acids.

    Dr. Frank was aware that the number and quality of mitochondria decreased with aging. He believed that nucleic acids may lead to increased synthesis of mitochondria, as well as enhanced repair of mitochondrial damage, thereby resulting in the increased energy production seen with RNA treatment. Dr. Frank first described the anti-anoxia effect of exogenous nucleic acids in his book, A New Approach to Degenerative Diseases and Aging (1964), which he believed was due to increased electron transport chain activity, resulting from increased ATP synthesis and turnover. Frank also believed that aging was due to a decay of DNA, occasioned by the breakdown of lysosomal membranes and subsequent release of destructive enzymes that cause DNA to decay. This breakdown of DNA leads to improperly formed messenger RNA. With advancing age, defective messenger RNA molecules are formed, causing subsequent errors in protein synthesis. If the improperly formed protein molecules are enzymes, they may either fail to perform their essential chemical reactions in cells, or do so at reduced rates.

    In any event, the result would be an accumulation of the substrates on which the enzymes act. Because of the feedback mechanisms which operate in cells, this accumulation of substrates could stimulate an increased production of defective messenger RNA and enzymes. When such an increase does not permit production of adequate amounts of normal enzymes, the cell dies. Nucleases are enzymes in the body that destroy nucleic acids. Ribonuclease (RNAase) breaks down RNA. Levels of ribonuclease increase as we grow older, resulting in increased destruction of RNA. This explains why older people need larger amounts of RNA. Aging, or decay in cells, may precede this increase in RNAase activity so that RNA itself is liberated. This liberated and possibly denatured RNA (or RNA-containing compounds) may induce increased RNAase formation and, once formed, this RNAase activity returns to accelerate the aging process.
    Basic to Dr. Frank's approach is the theory that exogenous RNA, when combined with metabolically associated B vitamins, minerals, amino acids and sugars, will enter the cell and aid in normal regeneration of the decayed metabolic organization of the cell and in so doing will bring about normal enzyme synthesis and activation.

    Although Frank was aware of and respected the work of other pioneers in anti-aging research like Denham Harman (Denham Harman and the History of the Free Radical Theory of Aging, VR News, Aug. 2002), and Johan Bjorksten (Crosslinkage Theory of Aging, VR News, Jan. 2002), he believed that the key to retarding or reversing aging—whatever the cause—lay in repairing the damage involved at the points or places of involvement. And it is here that nucleic acid-containing repair systems must be primarily involved. He believed that the nucleic acid containing metabolic system appears to offer the best hope of repairing the increasing damage caused by the aging process.
    To retard aging, he believed it was important to increase the quantity of nucleic acids in the diet, along with a broad spectrum of vitamins, minerals and trace minerals, and to follow a diet containing sufficient high quality protein and unsaturated fatty acids. Dr. Frank believed that if the optimum dosage of nucleic acids were taken, it would double or triple the present life span, if experience in animals was any indication.

    Nucleic Acid Therapy for Aging and the Diseases of Aging
    Aging Reversal
    Dr. Frank claimed that nucleic acid therapy resulted in a definite, but incomplete, reversal of many of the degenerative processes of aging. He believed that the observed results of aging reversal obtained with nucleic acids (and other nutritional factors) pointed the way to an attainable goal of reversing the biological age of an 80 year old man by 40 to 50 years. Frank stated optimistically, “Indeed, when total reversal of aging is achieved there would seem to be no reason why an indefinitely long and healthy life is not possible.”
    Dr. Frank reported on his experiences in increasing the life expectancy of two dogs treated with RNA. One dog was a mongrel aged 14 years, and the other was a 16-year-old Chihuahua. Both dogs were nearly blind, with hair that was dry, brittle and scanty, and suffered from arthritis and “myocardial weakness.” From their appearance, their future life expectancy was estimated by a veterinarian to be months, at the most. Dr. Frank treated both dogs with RNA (8 gm daily for the younger dog, and 4 gm daily for the older dog), along with B complex and cod liver oil daily. The health of both dogs improved dramatically after one month, activity increased, and their coats became much softer and fuller. The younger dog died in an automobile accident at age 20, and the older dog succumbed at age 23 from an infestation of intestinal worms. Dr. Frank reported that both dogs were in excellent health immediately prior to these final episodes, and believed that their lives were definitely extended by the RNA therapy.

    Anti-Aging Effect of RNA on Skin
    One of the most visible effects of aging is the wrinkling of skin. Other skin changes include a loss of elasticity and thinning of the skin, accompanied by the loss of fat and water. In human studies, Dr. Frank reported that “the most striking effects were observed on the skin of the face….the higher the dosage, the more rapidly these effects were observed. The first changes appeared to be alterations in skin …toward a healthier, rosier looking skin, with an apparent smoothening of the skin of the face, without any change yet in wrinkles and lines…. When dosages as low as 500 to 1,000 mg RNA daily were used, these early changes occurred in about 2 to 3 weeks. When doses of 5 grams daily were used, these changes occurred within the first week.
    After one to two months of treatment, there not only was an increase in smoothness and color of the skin, but lines and wrinkles began to diminish. The wrinkles in the forehead were often the first to decrease in depth. Those of the nasolabial fold appeared to take longer. The lines around the eyes took longer still to decrease in depth….”

    Concurrent with the observed decreases in skin wrinkling Dr. Frank observed increases in skin tightness, which he believed were an important cause of the smoothening of the skin, along with increased hydration.
    A standard test of aging of skin is to measure the time it takes for the skin of the dorsum of the hand to return to its normal condition after being “pinched” (Figs. 1 and 2). Three to four months of RNA treatment resulted in a more rapid return to normal in the majority of patients tested. Frank reported that after 15 patients (6 males and 9 females, varying in age from 40 to 71 years) were administered 5 grams of RNA daily for three months, the time it took for skin to return to normal after being pinched decreased by 30 to 40 percent. Wrinkles of the forehead were also noticeably reduced after 2 to 4 months of treatment. Dr. Frank estimated that the improved appearance of the skin resulted in an apparent decreased age by ten years or more in older patients (those over 70).

    Dr. Frank reported that “liver spots” often disappeared after approximately two months of oral nucleic acid therapy, accompanied by tightening of the skin, causing folds to diminish and giving skin a tighter, more youthful appearance. In addition to the obvious improvements in skin appearance and elasticity, these changes indicate potentially beneficial effects on internal organs as well.

    Dr. Frank noted other skin changes due to RNA therapy, including a gradual decrease in size and pigmentation of senile keratoses (wart-like skin lesions), beginning two to four months after initiating RNA therapy. This occurred with doses of RNA ranging from 1-3 gm daily.
    Frank also noted reduced dryness of the skin, and an improvement in acne in younger people.
    Next Month
    Part III of RNA: A Highly Effective Anti-Aging Supplement will review the anti-aging and health benefits of Dr. Frank's Ribonucleic Acid Therapy in relation to cancer, diabetes, coronary heart disease, energy production, and related disorders of aging.

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